Last edited by Mole
Tuesday, July 14, 2020 | History

2 edition of Accelerated Oxidation of Zircaloy-2 in Supercritical Steam. found in the catalog.

Accelerated Oxidation of Zircaloy-2 in Supercritical Steam.

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.

Accelerated Oxidation of Zircaloy-2 in Supercritical Steam.

by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.

  • 208 Want to read
  • 23 Currently reading

Published by s.n in S.l .
Written in English


Edition Notes

1

SeriesAtomic Energy of Canada Limited. AECL -- 4448
ContributionsCox, B.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL21971259M

Increasing steam parameters (pressure and temperature) of utility boilers can effectively improve fossil energy utilization to reduce pollutant emissions [1,2].The application of ultra-supercritical technology puts higher requirements on the steam oxidation resistance of high temperature heating surface materials [3,4].The increase of steam temperature leads to an accelerated . The present invention provides improvements in supercritical fluid extraction of particulate egg substrates by forming the substrate into porous solid particles characterized by a number weighted mean particle size ranging from about millimeters to about 3 millimeters and by a tapped bulk density of from about to about grams per milliliter prior to subjecting the .

Sridharan et al. found that surface treatment with yttrium decreased the oxidation levels in Zircaloy 2 after exposure to supercritical water at C . faster oxidation rate than pure zirconium [l l, there is no evidence of significant differences between the oxidation rates of Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 [l 1,15,16]. For that reason, data points shown in the tables and figures below do not differentiate between the .

Zircaloy-steam reaction rate in flowing steam was measured in the temperature range of ∼1,°C. The reaction rate measured from the weight gain followed a parabolic law above 1,°C, but it deviated from the law at and °C. Growth rates of ZrO 2 layer and ZrO 2 + stabilized α-phase were also parabolic above 1,°C. A continuum model for calculating the time-dependent hydrogen pickup fractions in various Zirconium alloys under steam and pressured water oxidation has been developed in this study.


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Accelerated Oxidation of Zircaloy-2 in Supercritical Steam by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Download PDF EPUB FB2

ACCELERATED OXIDATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 IN SUPERCRITICAL STEAM by B. Cox ABSTRACT Although a few earlier examples of excessive oxidation of Zircaloy-2 in high temperature (> C) steam at high pressures (^ psi) have been reported, evidence suggested that at higher steam pressures the effects could be more serious.

High-temperature oxidation of zircaloy-2 and zircaloy-4 in steam. Oxidation of Zircaloy by Steam and Oxygen The following is an analysis of the chemical energy released from the oxidation of zircaloy in either steam or air. Both oxidation reactions are exothermic, releasing heat as the metal Zr is converted to reactions under consideration are as follows: Zr+02 -> ZrO2 +AH 0 2 and.

Corrosion and deuterium uptake of coupons of Zircaloy-2, Zr–Cr–Fe, Zr–1Nb and Zr–Nb and Cr-coated Zircaloy-2, Zircaloy-4, Zr–Cr–Fe, Zr–1Nb and Zr–Nb were investigated in 10, 24, 30 and 34 MPa D 2 O at °C.

Based on the results from exposures of up to h, the following conclusions are drawn:Cited by: 5. Cox found that oxidation of Zry was enhanced under supercritical high-pressure steam below °C. Pawel et al. measured the oxide thickness of Zry claddings at and °C under high pressure steam.

They observed that the oxidation of Zry was abnormally enhanced only in the specimen oxidized at ° by: 5. The effect of sputtered films of Nichrome, stainless steels and platinum on the oxidation behaviour of Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 in steam at K and MPa was investigated.

The occurrence of nodular type accelerated oxidation, normally observed with regular uncoated samples, was reduced drastically in the case of sputter coated samples. To evaluate if hydrogen is a cause for or a consequence of accelerated corrosion, pre-transition oxidation tests of Zircaloy-2 have been performed with hydrogen present in three different states: i) Hydrogen in solid solution in the zirconium alloy, corresponding to the initial oxidation prior to precipitation of hydrides.

Very rapid oxide film growth and severe intergranular penetrating oxidation of unstressed Zircaloy specimens has been observed infused eutectic mixtures of NaNO3-KNO3-NaCl and NaNO3-KNO3-KBr at °C.

Studies of the oxide films produced have shown that the accelerated film growth rate is associated with a change in oxide crystallite morphology. A major challenge in supercritical water-cooled reactor development is the lack of a consistent alloy database.

An international interlaboratory comparison test was organized to study the reproducibility of weight change data obtained for identical alloys under similar conditions in different facilities.

HT steam oxidation experiments carried out at temperatures above °C show that the formation of a liquid Zr-Cr (eutectic) phase at the outer surface of the Cr-coated clad may not drastically modify the HT oxidation mechanisms and kinetics of the zirconium-based material, at least for the quite short oxidation times experienced here.

The extent of the acceleration of Zircaloy-2 however, is appreciably less than in high oxygen water and other experiments in wet helium atmospheres (ref. 14), steam (ref. 3) and impure carbon dioxide (ref. 10) have shown the oxidation rate in gaseous atmospheres is not greatly influenced by the partial pressure of oxygen.

@article{osti_, title = {Some factors which affect the rate of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zircaloy-2 in steam}, author = {Cox, Brian}, abstractNote = {Data, which were accumulated over several years, on the effect of a number of variables on the oxidation and hydriding of Zircaloy-2 are presented.

The use of this information to eliminate some of the. Abstract. The high efficient pulverized coal fired power generation employing advanced ultra supercritical condition (A-USC) with the main steam condition beyond °C in temperature has been aiming to increase its efficiency of the power generation and reduce CO 2 emission.

The steam condition applied to the units depends on the materials’ properties like mechanical. The pickup of hydrogen by Zircaloy-2 is about three times that of Zircaloy On the basis of the available information, Zircaloy-4 appears to be adequate for use as the material of construction for the fuel element containers in the advanced core for the N.

Savannah. Zircaloy-4 is recommended over Zircaloy-2 because of its lower hydrogen. Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 sister samples were corroded in _C water and an additional set of Zircaloy-2 samples was corroded in _C steam. Total weight gain, assumed to be due mostly to oxygen, and hydrogen content were measured as functions of exposure time.

HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM OXIDATION OF TITANIUM-COATED ZIRCALOY-2 AND TITANIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS BY JORDAN RYSZARD BACZYNSKI THESIS Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana.

Request PDF | Oxidation Mechanism in Zircaloy-2—The Effect of SPP Size Distribution | The metal/oxide interface region in Zircaloy-2 oxidized in autoclave was. COX, B., "Accelerated Oxidation of Zircaloy-2 in Supercritical Steam", Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Report AECL (). RICKOVER, H.G., GEIGER, LD.

and LUSTMAN, B., "History of the Dcvelopment of Zirconium Alloys for use in Nuclear Reactors", U.S. Report, TID (). The oxidation behavior of chromium (Cr) and chromium-aluminum (CrAl) coatings with various compositions deposited on Zircaloy-2 to °C high-temperature steam (HTS) exposure has been investigated.

Zircaloy-2, -4, Zr–Cr–Fe, Zr–1Nb and Zr–Nb were tested as prospective fuel cladding materials in 30 MPa D2O at °C. Zircaloy-2 showed the.

@article{osti_, title = {Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines}, author = {Holcomb, Gordon H}, abstractNote = {U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to °C and atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions.Oxidation Mechanisms in Zircaloy-2 - The Effect of SPP Size Distribution Pia Tejland1,2, Hans-Olof Andrén2, Gustav Sundell2, Mattias Thuvander2, Bertil Josefsson3, Lars Hallstadius4, Maria Ivermark 4 and Mats Dahlbäck 1 Now with Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nyköping, Sweden 2 Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden 3 Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Stockholm, Sweden.and were trademarked as Zircaloys, of which Zircaloy-2 (Zry-2) and Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) exhibited favored properties.

Nevertheless, the corrosion properties of zirconium at high temperature water and steam were not adequately known, at that time .